After the Battle of the River Yamas in 751, the Arabs took the Chinese paper workers into captivity, which made paper popular in Arabic lands. Arabs used starch to make paper, which did well in hot and dry climates, but was not suitable for more temperate regions. Manufacturing took quite a long time because the fibres were separated by hand.
Paper in Europe – cosmetic boxes
Initially, the paper used in Europe was produced by Arabs, who had paper mills, among others, in the United States. in Spain and Sicily. Breviarium and Missale mozarabicum, rewritten before 1036 in the Monastery of Santo Domingo de Silos near Burgos, are regarded as the oldest paper manuscripts on the European continent. In Latin culture, the first paper mills were founded in the 12th and 13th centuries: in Spain (before 1150 r.) and then in Italy (before 1230 r.). From the 13th century, paper production began to spread in other European countries.
The oldest and most famous is the paper mill in Fabriano, founded in 1268. There are three innovations in the paper production process:
- fabric fibres were separated by means of a special machine (pillar a magli multipli), which contributed to increasing production and improving the quality of the finished product,
- animal gelatine has been used as a binding agent for fibres,
- a watermark was introduced which made it possible to identify the paper mills and provided a quality guarantee.
Introduced innovations and paper migration have contributed to the diffusion of both Fabriano paper itself and the way it is produced in the backbone of Europe.
Cosmetic boxes made of finest paper
The paper production process accelerated with the introduction of a new paper machine around 1670, the so-called „paper machine”. The machine made it possible to grind the raw material into the form of pulp by means of knives placed in the vat (bottom cutter and milling roller).
Since the beginning of the 19th century, alternative raw materials for paper production have been sought. After many experiments, wood abrasives and cellulose proved to be the most suitable and simplest in production. In 1845 Heinrich Voelter and Johann Matthäus Voith presented at an exhibition in Paris a machine paper machine machine machine machine machine for pulp pulp and paper production, which was first used by Friedrich Gottlob Keller in 1845. Since then, paper production has become mass production.